FBW12 | CANEUS Fly-by-Wireless Workshop 2012
August 24-27, 2012 | Orono, Maine, USA

Project 2: Wireless Structural Health Monitoring Wi-SHM

Objectives: The overall goal for Wireless Structural Health Monitoring (Wi-SHM) project is to address many unresolved system related issues; such as data communication, protocol standards, Electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation mechanisms, EM spectrum, physical wireless transmission techniques, and so on.

Wireless communication protocols are now standardized with such protocols as IEEE 802.11 through 802.15, and bandwidths are now approaching that of conventional wired networks. Furthermore, increases in chip real estate and processor production capability have reduced the power requirements for both computing and communication. In fact, sensing, communication, and computing can now be performed on a single chip, reducing the cost further and permitting economically viable high-density sensor networks. All of these advances have yielded wireless sensor networks that increasingly meet the original visions for these networks: (1) a large number of individual sensor nodes, densely deployed in possibly random configurations in the sensing environment; (2) the capability for self-organization and near-neighbour awareness so that information exchange between an individual node and a user may be achieved via point-to-point hopping protocols; (3) cooperation between sensor nodes, where they use local processing capability to perform data fusion or other computational duties and then transmit only required or partially processed data onward.

Thus, the main objectives of the project will be: to find computationally efficient algorithms for detection of the damage state of a material (including nucleation and growth), detect the damage and apply classification techniques for sensor integration and instrumentation, develop wireless prognosis capabilities for predicting failure probability and remaining useful life, and finally implement an effective testing, validation and application process. This will require testing all the functionalities and operations of wireless connectivity to provide a solid learning and apply test cases to verify the maintenance, repair, and testing (structures; propulsion and power; electronics; sensors, communications, and effectors; in-service non-destructive evaluation and inspection); obsolescence management; training; data support for the wireless network systems.

In addition, the concept will be extended to respond to the reliability needs of manned space, unmanned space, aeronautics, defense industry.. Furthermore, to follow-up with and support the issue of aerospace and aeronautic Frequency Spectrum allocations activities that is planned for the ITU’s World Radio communication conference 2012 (WRC-12) and WRC 2015. Radio frequency spectrum determination and protection are important challenges ahead of us with determination of Regulatory Compliance issues according to the Industry regulations [Ref. 2].

Problem Statement – Need for Wireless SHM and State-of-the-art:

The application of wireless technologies to more critical applications, such as wireless Structural Health Monitoring (Wi-SHM) offers the potential to greatly reduce the weight of cabling within the aircrafts and spacecrafts. Wireless sensor networks are becoming a nexus of activity within the aerospace community. Unfortunately, few good tools for experimenting with wireless sensor networks exist. Simulators fail to capture significant details of node operation or wireless communication, and while real wireless SHM platform will capture the realism that simulations miss, traditionally they have been difficult to use or limited to a small group of investigators.

A fully qualified wireless sensor system based on simple wireless sensors concept that performs with 99.99999% reliability and having small mass and reduced consumption and volume, would be of great interest to all integrators and stake holders. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a wireless SHM platform to characterize the functional requirements, operation and behaviour of wireless sensors systems when used within an aerospace environment.  Variables include selection of target wireless sensors, transmission methods, frequencies employed, access protocols, potential prognostics solutions, and evaluation of sensors vulnerability to detrimental environmental effects (radiation, EMI, EMP, HIRF etc).

Wireless data transmission has been widely adopted for use with laptop computers and handheld wireless devices. Wireless sensor networks (e.g., Figure 1) are becoming a nexus of activity within the aerospace community. Unfortunately, few good tools for experimenting with wireless sensor networks exist. Simulators fail to capture significant details of node operation or wireless communication, and while Wireless SHM platforms can capture the realism that simulations miss, traditionally they have been difficult to use or limited to a small group of researchers. 

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